11 first things which ever surprised the world
This World is full of many amazing things, but do you know these 11 first things which surprised the world? Although there are lots of inventions which revolutionised the world with their great impact on our life, here are the greatest ones.
1. FIRST BISCUIT- first things
The name of the man who invented and prepared the first biscuit remained unknown. The origin of a biscuit test can only be indicated by its name. In French, "bis" means "twice", and "cuit" means baking. Means, literally biscuit - baked twice. Also in Italian "biscotte" has the same meaning.
The first records of biscuits are kept by ship's logs of sailors from England. Going on a long voyage, the sailors filled the holds with considerable stocks of "ship biscuits", or, as they were called, "sea biscuits". The dried biscuit did not spoil for a long time. It did not appear mould even under wet conditions. Not having in its recip any butter, the biscuit remained edible until the end of the voyage. In addition, it was very nutritious, and did not take much space. All these properties made the "sea biscuit" irreplaceable in travel.
Biscuits became the most popular addition to the English afternoon tea drinking. Tea receptions are no longer dispensed with fresh biscuits with all kinds of interlayers and fillings, prepared by the most famous confectioners. Of course, these cakes were no longer suitable for long storage in ship holds.
2. INVENTION TELESCOPE- first things
A Telescope is an optical astronomical instrument that is designed to observe celestial objects. It is known that the first telescopes were of two types - lens (refractors) and mirror (reflectors).
The name of the first inventor of the telescope has so far been for certain and has not been established. Some researchers are inclined to consider the first inventor of the telescope of the Dutch optician and the lens dealer for glasses Zacharias Jansen. However, it is mentioned that having presented in the 17th century a far-sighted device ("telescope"), Jansen took advantage of the developments of an unknown Italian inventor. Another group of scientists believes that the first mention of the telescope is found in the English philosopher of the 13th century Roger Bacon and that he is the first inventor of the telescope.
The first researcher, who conducted astronomical observations using a refractor telescope, was Galileo Galilei, an Italian scholar of the 17th century. In 1609, he designed a telescope made of lead with two glass lenses and first applied this device to observe celestial objects.
3. THE FIRST CAR- first things
The car is one of the greatest inventions of mankind, which played a huge role and was of great importance not only for the era that spawned it, but also for subsequent generations. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of cars today, its influence is felt not only in the transport industry, but in all spheres of human life. It became a visual, tangible embodiment of technological progress, transformed the face of the planet.
The history of the car has many bright and amazing pages, but the most interesting and important were the early years of its creation. The word car means "self-propelled". The predecessor of the car with a gasoline engine was the steam car, more precisely a steam car was built by the French inventor J. Cunha in 1769. The heavy car moved at a speed of 2-4 km per hour and could carry up to three tonnes of cargo. The truth was to stop and every quarter of an hour to ignite the furnace, because the pressure in the boiler quickly dropped, in addition, the car was poorly controlled, often ran into houses and fences. By the way, the "Canyon cart" is the predecessor of not only the car but also the locomotive, since it was powered by steam power.
Already in 1803, Richard Trivaytik created the first steam car in the UK.
4. FIRST CONDOM CREATION
The condom is a very ancient invention. The first mention of the predecessors of modern condoms can be found in the works of Greek historians dedicated to the reign of King Minos. Minos lived for 3000 years BC on the islandCrete. The king was not faithful to his wife Pasiphae, he had a great number of beautiful mistresses. One day his wife was sick of her husband's unsympathetic behaviour. According to legend, Pasiphae bewitched her husband, and since then ejaculate semen during love joys of Minos turned into snakes and scorpions, who pounced on and killed his lovers. The king was very worried about the fact that the number of his mistresses was rapidly declining, but soon one of them found a way out. Beauty Pro kid "constructed" a kind of condom from a goat bladder, which before being close to the king had to be placed in the vagina. Thus, she saved not only her life but also the lives of the other mistresses of Minos.
5. FIRST CANCER- first things
" too many, cancer appears to be a fairly uniform process ... and the uniformity of the tumour process makes many people think about the uniformity of the mechanisms of induction "
At the far end of the long peninsula in southwestern Turkey is the ancient citadel of Kid. There, among the temples, theatres, roads and the most diverse buildings of extremely complex structures, a community of 60,000 people once flourished. Now, these remains of Byzantine and Greek civilisation are scattered along the mountain slope, where goats and cattle graze.
Some peasants somehow made a living by sea cart, and a small detachment of well-disposed military guards traced of one of the greatest civilisations in human history. To the north-west of this barren slope behind the white rocks and the pale blue waters of the now polluted harbour at a distance of 10 miles in the open sea, Kos. Here around 450 BC, before Cnidus reached its heydey, the man who laid the foundations of modern medicine was born - Hippocrates.
Later Hippocrates, combining observations with perspective thinking, wrote the series of remarkable treatises, from where we can learn about the diseases of that time. Among his works, there is a treatise titled "On Carcinosis." It apparently describes breast cancer: "A woman from Abdera developed a breast carcinoma, and a serious bloody fluid was released through the nipple when the discharge stopped, she died." The term "carcinoma" is now used to describe the cancer of integumentary tissues, and the suffix "oma" means swelling. Hippocrates also used the term "Nikos" to describe tumours, and although he apparently did not restrict it solely to cancer, he derived the word "oncology", literally meaning tumour research, but now used as the name of all disciplines, which study cancer.
6. BIRTH CONTROL PILLS
History of contraceptive pills. The first birth control pills were manufactured in the US in 1958. These tablets in their composition contained hormones and were called "Envoid". The authors of birth control pills were a nurse from New York Margaret Sanger and the daughter of one of the Chicago aristocrats, a scientist - biologist Catherine Dexter Mack Cormick. Margaret Sanger worked in a gynaecological hospital and saw very well how women from the lower strata of society who are forced to live in poverty, suffer from the consequences of unplanned pregnancy and abortions. In turn, Catherine Dexter Mack Cormick also dealt with the same problem, but thanks to an inheritance and good education in the field of biology, she could afford to conduct serious research in the development of new methods of contraception.
7. The FIRST MAN who performed the operation to CHANGE THE SEX- first things
George Jamison became the first Briton, who changed his gender and made a huge noise in the press.
Now he is 77 years old, his name is Miss April Ashley. She (he) is an actress and a fighter for transsexual rights.
George Jamieson as a teenager, liked April Ashley.
At the height of her fame, she became a model of the magazine Vogue. She managed to seduce such famous actors as Omar Sharif and Peter O'Toole, and also attracted the attention of the loving Salvador Dali and Pablo Picasso.
But her world collapsed in the sixties when the "friend" sold her the story of her becoming a man from a woman.
At that time, she was going to marry an aristocrat. She did not manage to marry her, but the scandalous story made her famous.
George was born in Liverpool in 1935 and says that from the age of 3 he realised who he really is.
The young man was a victim of daily beatings at school. At the age of 15, in a vain attempt to become a man, he enlisted in the merchant marine, but after two years spent at sea, he decided to commit suicide. He had unsuccessful attempts at suicide, after which he was sent to a psychiatric hospital.
At the end of the treatment in 1955, George moved to Paris and worked as a hostess at the club Le Carrousel, whose clients were Ernest Hemingway, Jean-Paul Sartre and Bob Hope.
In 1960, at the age of 25, having accumulated 3000 pounds, he turned to the surgeon and underwent a sex change operation.
8. FIRST FOOTBALL- first things
Archaeological research allows us to conclude that in ancient times ritual ball games were widely spread on all continents without exception. So, leather balls were discovered during excavations in Greece and Egypt. According to ancient legends, the first ball was given to Eros by the goddess Aphrodite with the words about a wonderful toy, a quick flying ball. In accordance with the ritual, the ball acted as a symbol of the Sun and the Moon, as well as our planet and even the aurora borealis. But according to the official version of FIFA, the Chinese version of football - tsuju - was recognised as the most ancient. However, the prototype of football in its modern form can be considered an Italian game calcho. Since it was its participants who were divided into attackers, defenders and judges.
In the UK, the ball game originated as folk fun, held annually in the oil week. And in those days, no special rules, of course, were i nthere, and during the games, two teams with an unlimited number of participants had to simply score a goal against the opponents. The gate in such cases was a predetermined place in the centre of the city. This old version of football was accompanied by rudeness, which entailed injuries and a danger to the health of players. In some cities in England, instead of a leather ball, sometimes the head of one of the defeated enemies was used, which only emphasises the cruelty of those games. But also it is for certain known about the completely organised games of football, which were held at the same oil weeks among the London boys. Written evidence of this fact is dated 1175 year.
9. Silicone BREAST Implants - first things
Exactly 50 years ago, the practice of plastic surgery included operations to increase the breast with the help of silicone implants. For the first time, women were given the opportunity to make their breasts as large as they had previously seen in dreams.
Silicone implants for celebrities.
Actually, the first attempts to create more appetising female forms were made as far back as 1889. Then the breasts were enlarged by injections of liquid paraffin. After that, many interesting subjects visited the female breast with the aim of increasing it. From the list of hair stand on end! These are glass spheres, ivory, rubber, ox cartilage, adipose tissue, wool, gutta-percha, polyethene tape, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyester and Teflon silicone prosthesis. It is not surprising that such operations led to deformities of the breasts at best, and at worst to the occurrence of infections, tumours and fatty necrosis.
The dream of many women about a large breast remained inaccessible until at last in 1961 plastic surgeons from Houston Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow did not develop the first modern silicone implants. Their invention was a real breakthrough in the field of plastic surgery. The first "silicone" operation for breast augmentation was conducted in 1962 - exactly half a century ago. History has kept the name of the lucky possessor of silicone "inserts" - it was a certain Jean Lindsey.
10. FIRST CIVIL AVIATION- first things
Civil aviation developed at an unprecedented pace. In order to become one of the most popular types of passenger transport, eclipsed by rail, aviation took only six decades. Air passengers appeared in 1908, the first air cargo was delivered in 1910, the first charter flight was made in 1911, the first airline that carried passengers on schedule in 1914, the first flight attendant in 1930, the air marshal in 1968, M.
1901 American inventor Orville Wright Orville Wright made the first guided flight on an aircraft heavier than air. The historic event took place near the town of Kitty Hawk in North Carolina. The Wright Flyer (invented and assembled by two brothers - Orville and Wilbur Wilbur Wright) flew 36.5 meters and lasted 12 seconds in the air. Immediately after that, three more flights were carried out, one of which lasted almost a minute.
11. FIRST ANDROID PHONE- first things
Android - an operating system for mobile devices, which can be found in communicators, tablet PCs, netbooks and smartphones.
In the distant (already), 2003 in the California state of Palo Alto, four friends Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White opened a small company Android inc. At that time the company already had a set of software developments for the future operating system.
In August 2005, the company Android inc., was interested in a major search engine Google, which soon acquired it. After the deal, rumours spread in the network that Google wants to enter the mobile devices market and start producing smartphones under its own brand - "Google phone".
However, rumours remained rumours and, in exchange, an alliance of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) was created, consisting of leading manufacturers of mobile devices.
In November 2007, there was an announcement of a mobile platform - Android, which is based on the Linux kernel. And at the moment, there are hundredssites in different languages, where you can download everything for android.
The first version of the operating system appeared in September 2008, for communicators T-Mobile G1 (HTC Dream), six months later, it was updated to version 1.1.
After the releases of the versions Cupcake (1.5) and Doughnut (1.6), there was a rapid spurt in the development of the OS. The second version, called Eclair, became an intermediate version, the upgrade to 2.1 was also called.
A version of Android 2.2 Froyo gave owners of mobile devices support for web technologies HTML5 and Flash 10.1. A version of Android 2.3 Gingerbread has a new interface and support for the NFC standard.
With the release of Android 3.0 Honeycomb for tablet computers, the most global changes occurred. Completely changed the user interface, added three-dimensional effects, a quality browser and many other goodies.
And finally, on October 19, 2011, released Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich.
If the excitement around the OS Android does not go down in the near future, Google with peace of mind can be attributed to the leaders among mobile platforms. And this will please the fans of this platform.